TED演讲:是什么造就了长城的无与伦比
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2020-04-02 08:42 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
TED演讲:是什么造就了长城的无与伦比,好好学习下,下次向外国朋友介绍的长城的话就不会没有话说了。
A 13,000 mile dragon of earth and stone winds its way through the countryside of China 一条1万3英里的土石之龙蜿蜒于中国乡野之间,
with a history almost as long and serpentine1 as the structure. 它的历史几乎与其结构一样悠久曲折。
The Great Wall began as multiple walls of rammed2 earth built by individual feudal3 states during the Chunqiu period 长城最初是多座泥土夯实的城墙,由春秋战国时期的各个独立封建国家修筑,
to protect against nomadic4 raiders north of China and each other. 以抵制中国北方游牧民和其它国家。
When Emperor Qin Shi Huang unified5 the states in 221 BCE, 公元前221年,秦始皇统一中国时,
the Tibetan Plateau and Pacific Ocean became natural barriers, 青藏高原和太平洋成为了国家的天然屏障,
but the mountains in the north remained vulnerable to Mongol, Turkish, and Xiongnu invasions. 但北方的山脉对于蒙古、土耳其及匈奴人的入侵来说显得非常薄弱。
To defend against them, the Emperor expanded the small walls built by his predecessors6, 为了抵御外敌,秦始皇扩建了之前所筑建的小城墙,
connecting some and fortifying7 others. 把它们巩固强化并加以连接。
As the structures grew from Lintao in the west to Liaodong in the east, 城墙起于西部临洮,止于东部辽东,
they collectively became known as The Long Wall. 合在一起称为长城。
To accomplish this task, the Emperor enlisted8 soldiers and commoners, not always voluntarily. 为了完成这项工程,秦始皇征召了士兵和平民,而他们往往不是出于自愿。
Of the hundreds of thousands of builders recorded during the Qin Dynasty, 在秦朝记录的成千上万建造者中,
many were forcibly conscripted peasants and others were criminals serving out sentences. 许多人都是被强征而去的农民,另外一些则是服刑犯人。
Under the Han Dynasty, the wall grew longer still, reaching 3700 miles, 汉朝时期,长城继续扩建延长至3700英里,
and spanning from Dunhuang to the Bohai Sea. 从敦煌延伸到渤海。
Forced labor9 continued under the Han Emperor Han-Wudi,  强制性劳动在汉武帝时期持续着,
and the walls reputation grew into a notorious place of suffering. 因而城墙被视作受苦受害之地,从而臭名昭彰。
Poems and legends of the time told of laborers10 buried in nearby mass graves, or even within the wall itself. 那一时期的诗歌与传说描述了劳动者被掩埋于附近的大规模墓地甚至是城墙内。
And while no human remains11 have been found inside, grave pits do 然而城墙内并未发现人类尸骸墓坑,
indicate that many workers died from accidents, hunger and exhaustion12. 表明那些劳动者大多死于意外、饥饿与疲劳。
The wall was formidable but not invincible13. 长城令人生畏却非不可战胜。
Both Genghis and his son Khublai Khan managed to surmount14 the wall during the Mongol invasion of the 13th Century. 成吉思汗和他的儿子忽必烈曾于13世纪蒙古侵入之际设法攻克城墙。
After the Ming dynasty gained control in 1368, 1368年明朝执政之后,
they began to refortify and further consolidate15 the wall using bricks and stones from local kilns16. 他们开始使用当地窑中烧制而成的砖与石头重新强化和加固长城。
Averaging 23 feet high and 21 feet wide, the walls 5500 miles were punctuated17 by watchtowers. 长城平均高7米,宽6米,5500英里的城墙中间隔着瞭望台。
When raiders were sighted, fire and smoke signals traveled between towers until reinforcements arrived. 一旦看到有侵入者,瞭望台之间便会用升起的狼烟与风火传递信号,直到援兵抵达。
Small openings along the wall let archers18 fire on invaders19, 城墙上的小孔让弓箭手能够射击侵入者,
while larger ones were used to drop stones and more. 而大孔则用于投掷石头或者其它东西。
But even this new and improved wall was not enough. 但即便是这种全新改进的城墙仍然不够好。
In 1644, northern Manchu clans20 overthrew21 the Ming to establish the Qing dynasty, incorporating Mongolia as well, 1644年,北方满族推翻明朝建立清朝,同时合并了蒙古。
Thus, for the second time, China was ruled by the very people the wall had tried to keep out. 因此,这是中国第二次被城墙抵御的外族统治。
With the empire's borders now extending beyond the Great Wall, the fortifications lost their purpose. 随着帝国边界扩展到长城以外,这些工事失去了原本的目的。
And without regular reinforcement, the wall fell into disrepair, rammed earth eroded22, 没有了定期加固,城墙失修破损,夯土被侵蚀,
while brick and stone were plundered23 for building materials. But its job wasn't finished. 砖和石头则被盗窃用作建筑材料,但是长城的使命仍未结束。
During World War II, China used sections for defense24 against Japanese invasion, 第二次世界大战期间,中国用部分城墙来抵御日本侵略,
and some parts are still rumored25 to be used for military training. 一部分城墙仍然被盛传用于军事训练。
But the Wall's main purpose today is cultural. 然而今日,文化才是长城的主要目的。
As one of the largest man-made structures on Earth, 作为地球上大型人工建筑之一,
it was granted UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1987. 长城于1987年被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。
Originally built to keep people out of China, the Great Wall now welcomes millions of visitors each year. 长城起初建造用于防御外人进入中国,如今每年都会迎接数百万游客。
In fact, the influx26 of tourists has caused the wall to deteriorate27, 实际上,大量涌入的游客已导致长城日益损坏,
leading the Chinese government to launch preservation28 initiatives. 致使中国政府启动保护措施。
It's also often acclaimed29 as the only man-made structure visible from space. 它也经常被宣称为唯一一处可自太空看见的人造建筑。
Unfortunately, that's not at all true. 不幸的是,这种说法不完全正确。
In low Earth orbit, all sorts of structures, like bridges, highways and airports are visible, 在地球低轨道上,各种建筑物如桥梁、高速公路以及机场均可看见,
and the Great Wall is only barely discernible. 而长城却若隐若现。
From the moon, it doesn't stand a chance. 从月球上,它则一点也看不到。
But regardless, it's the Earth we should be studying it from because new sections are still discovered every few years,  但无论如何,地球才是我们应该好好研究长城的地方,因为每隔几年都会有新的部分被发现,
branching off from the main body and expanding this remarkable30 monument to human achievement. 它们从主体部分扩展开去,不断延伸着这见证人类成就的伟大奇迹。



点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 serpentine MEgzx     
adj.蜿蜒的,弯曲的
参考例句:
  • One part of the Serpentine is kept for swimmers.蜿蜒河的一段划为游泳区。
  • Tremolite laths and serpentine minerals are present in places.有的地方出现透闪石板条及蛇纹石。
2 rammed 99b2b7e6fc02f63b92d2b50ea750a532     
v.夯实(土等)( ram的过去式和过去分词 );猛撞;猛压;反复灌输
参考例句:
  • Two passengers were injured when their taxi was rammed from behind by a bus. 公共汽车从后面撞来,出租车上的两位乘客受了伤。
  • I rammed down the earth around the newly-planted tree. 我将新栽的树周围的土捣硬。 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 feudal cg1zq     
adj.封建的,封地的,领地的
参考例句:
  • Feudal rulers ruled over the country several thousand years.封建统治者统治这个国家几千年。
  • The feudal system lasted for two thousand years in China.封建制度在中国延续了两千年之久。
4 nomadic 0H5xx     
adj.流浪的;游牧的
参考例句:
  • This tribe still live a nomadic life.这个民族仍然过着游牧生活。
  • The plowing culture and the nomadic culture are two traditional principal cultures in China.农耕文化与游牧文化是我国传统的两大主体文化。
5 unified 40b03ccf3c2da88cc503272d1de3441c     
(unify 的过去式和过去分词); 统一的; 统一标准的; 一元化的
参考例句:
  • The teacher unified the answer of her pupil with hers. 老师核对了学生的答案。
  • The First Emperor of Qin unified China in 221 B.C. 秦始皇于公元前221年统一中国。
6 predecessors b59b392832b9ce6825062c39c88d5147     
n.前任( predecessor的名词复数 );前辈;(被取代的)原有事物;前身
参考例句:
  • The new government set about dismantling their predecessors' legislation. 新政府正着手废除其前任所制定的法律。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Will new plan be any more acceptable than its predecessors? 新计划比原先的计划更能令人满意吗? 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 fortifying 74f03092477ce02d5a404c4756ead70e     
筑防御工事于( fortify的现在分词 ); 筑堡于; 增强; 强化(食品)
参考例句:
  • Fortifying executive function and restraining impulsivity are possible with active interventions. 积极干预可能有助加强执行功能和抑制冲动性。
  • Vingo stopped looking, tightening his face, fortifying himself against still another disappointment. 文戈不再张望,他绷紧脸,仿佛正在鼓足勇气准备迎接另一次失望似的。
8 enlisted 2d04964099d0ec430db1d422c56be9e2     
adj.应募入伍的v.(使)入伍, (使)参军( enlist的过去式和过去分词 );获得(帮助或支持)
参考例句:
  • enlisted men and women 男兵和女兵
  • He enlisted with the air force to fight against the enemy. 他应募加入空军对敌作战。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
9 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
10 laborers c8c6422086151d6c0ae2a95777108e3c     
n.体力劳动者,工人( laborer的名词复数 );(熟练工人的)辅助工
参考例句:
  • Laborers were trained to handle 50-ton compactors and giant cranes. 工人们接受操作五十吨压土机和巨型起重机的训练。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. 雇佣劳动完全是建立在工人的自相竞争之上的。 来自英汉非文学 - 共产党宣言
11 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
12 exhaustion OPezL     
n.耗尽枯竭,疲惫,筋疲力尽,竭尽,详尽无遗的论述
参考例句:
  • She slept the sleep of exhaustion.她因疲劳而酣睡。
  • His exhaustion was obvious when he fell asleep standing.他站着睡着了,显然是太累了。
13 invincible 9xMyc     
adj.不可征服的,难以制服的
参考例句:
  • This football team was once reputed to be invincible.这支足球队曾被誉为无敌的劲旅。
  • The workers are invincible as long as they hold together.只要工人团结一致,他们就是不可战胜的。
14 surmount Lrqwh     
vt.克服;置于…顶上
参考例句:
  • We have many problems to surmount before we can start the project.我们得克服许多困难才能著手做这项工作。
  • We are fully confident that we can surmount these difficulties.我们完全相信我们能够克服这些困难。
15 consolidate XYkyV     
v.使加固,使加强;(把...)联为一体,合并
参考例句:
  • The two banks will consolidate in July next year. 这两家银行明年7月将合并。
  • The government hoped to consolidate ten states to form three new ones.政府希望把十个州合并成三个新的州。
16 kilns a783251ff4c9ad3d87dce8463073429b     
n.窑( kiln的名词复数 );烧窑工人
参考例句:
  • Bricks and earthware articles are baked in kilns. 砖和陶器都是在窑中烧成的。 来自辞典例句
  • The bricks are baking in the kilns. ?里正在烧砖。 来自辞典例句
17 punctuated 7bd3039c345abccc3ac40a4e434df484     
v.(在文字中)加标点符号,加标点( punctuate的过去式和过去分词 );不时打断某事物
参考例句:
  • Her speech was punctuated by bursts of applause. 她的讲演不时被阵阵掌声打断。
  • The audience punctuated his speech by outbursts of applause. 听众不时以阵阵掌声打断他的讲话。 来自《简明英汉词典》
18 archers 79516825059e33df150af52884504ced     
n.弓箭手,射箭运动员( archer的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The next evening old Mr. Sillerton Jackson came to dine with the Archers. 第二天晚上,西勒顿?杰克逊老先生来和阿切尔家人一起吃饭。 来自辞典例句
  • Week of Archer: Double growth for Archers and Marksmen. 射手周:弓箭手与弩手(人类)产量加倍。 来自互联网
19 invaders 5f4b502b53eb551c767b8cce3965af9f     
入侵者,侵略者,侵入物( invader的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They prepared to repel the invaders. 他们准备赶走侵略军。
  • The family has traced its ancestry to the Norman invaders. 这个家族将自己的世系追溯到诺曼征服者。
20 clans 107c1b7606090bbd951aa9bdcf1d209e     
宗族( clan的名词复数 ); 氏族; 庞大的家族; 宗派
参考例句:
  • There are many clans in European countries. 欧洲国家有很多党派。
  • The women were the great power among the clans [gentes], as everywhere else. 妇女在克兰〈氏族〉里,乃至一般在任何地方,都有很大的势力。 来自英汉非文学 - 家庭、私有制和国家的起源
21 overthrew dd5ffd99a6b4c9da909dc8baf50ba04a     
overthrow的过去式
参考例句:
  • The people finally rose up and overthrew the reactionary regime. 人们终于起来把反动的政权推翻了。
  • They overthrew their King. 他们推翻了国王。
22 eroded f1d64e7cb6e68a5e1444e173c24e672e     
adj. 被侵蚀的,有蚀痕的 动词erode的过去式和过去分词形式
参考例句:
  • The cliff face has been steadily eroded by the sea. 峭壁表面逐渐被海水侵蚀。
  • The stream eroded a channel in the solid rock. 小溪在硬石中侵蚀成一条水道。
23 plundered 02a25bdd3ac6ea3804fb41777f366245     
掠夺,抢劫( plunder的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • Many of our cultural treasures have been plundered by imperialists. 我国许多珍贵文物被帝国主义掠走了。
  • The imperialists plundered many valuable works of art. 帝国主义列强掠夺了许多珍贵的艺术品。
24 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保卫;[pl.]防务工事;辩护,答辩
参考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
25 rumored 08cff0ed52506f6d38c3eaeae1b51033     
adj.传说的,谣传的v.传闻( rumor的过去式和过去分词 );[古]名誉;咕哝;[古]喧嚷
参考例句:
  • It is rumored that he cheats on his wife. 据传他对他老婆不忠。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • It was rumored that the white officer had been a Swede. 传说那个白人军官是个瑞典人。 来自辞典例句
26 influx c7lxL     
n.流入,注入
参考例句:
  • The country simply cannot absorb this influx of refugees.这个国家实在不能接纳这么多涌入的难民。
  • Textile workers favoured protection because they feared an influx of cheap cloth.纺织工人拥护贸易保护措施,因为他们担心涌入廉价纺织品。
27 deteriorate Zm8zW     
v.变坏;恶化;退化
参考例句:
  • Do you think relations between China and Japan will continue to deteriorate?你认为中日关系会继续恶化吗?
  • He held that this would only cause the situation to deteriorate further.他认为,这只会使局势更加恶化。
28 preservation glnzYU     
n.保护,维护,保存,保留,保持
参考例句:
  • The police are responsible for the preservation of law and order.警察负责维持法律与秩序。
  • The picture is in an excellent state of preservation.这幅画保存得极为完好。
29 acclaimed 90ebf966469bbbcc8cacff5bee4678fe     
adj.受人欢迎的
参考例句:
  • They acclaimed him as the best writer of the year. 他们称赞他为当年的最佳作者。
  • Confuscius is acclaimed as a great thinker. 孔子被赞誉为伟大的思想家。
30 remarkable 8Vbx6     
adj.显著的,异常的,非凡的,值得注意的
参考例句:
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
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